STOP Early Journal Content on JSTOR, Free to Anyone in the World This article is one of nearly 500,000 scholarly works digitized and made freely available to everyone in the world by JSTOR. Known as the Early Journal Content, this set of works include research articles, news, letters, and other writings published in more than 200 of the oldest leading academic journals. The works date from the mid-seventeenth to the early twentieth centuries. We encourage people to read and share the Early Journal Content openly and to tell others that this resource exists. People may post this content online or redistribute in any way for non-commercial purposes. Read more about Early Journal Content at http://about.jstor.org/participate-jstor/individuals/early- journal-content . JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org. December, 1906]. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES. 245 noticed that in the dramatis personm, and again in the dialogue itself, Weisse has misinterpreted the cobbler's name, Zekel Jobsen, and has it read " Jobs Zekell." Many of the English puns, and much of the word-play Weisse has not, of course, been able to reproduce in the German text, but occasionally he has made up for this by intro- ducing a German pun, which is as good (or bad !) as the English original. We find an instance of this in the passage where the cook asks his new mistress (the disguised cobbler's wife) what she will have for breakfast, remarking : " Es ist auch noch ein Stuck gebratener Kapaun iibrig." " Nein, nein," says the ignorant peasant in her innocence, "Karthauen esse ich nicht !" Another device which Weisse uses to enliven the humor of his translation is plenty of "stage business." A case in point is found in the scene from which I have just quoted where the cobbler's wife ends her con- versation with the cook by saying, "I will take whatever you please, Mr. Cook," and Weisse adds the stage direction, " Kellner (geht ab und wiederholt im Gehen immer die Worte :) Herr Kellner, Herr Kellner I" Much of Weisse' s translation is a very free rendering of the English phraseology, even when there appears to be no necessity for it. We can understand, to be sure, how the translator might prefer to render the par- ticular term "popish cur" by the more general " Schlingel." But it seems as though Weisse has gone a long way out of his path in translating the phrase " I am a true English heart " by "Ich bin ein ehrlicher alter Degenknopf ! " Much of the popularity of Der Teufel ist Los was due to the genuine folk songs contained therein, some of them being translations, while others, such as the extremely popular "Ohne Lieb und ohne Wein," are German to the core. It was the combination of folk song and folk life, however, in Der Teufel ist Los that made it the favorite of the German people, and at the same time drew upon it the wrath of Gottsched and led thereby to the downfall of his school. 3 Such in brief is the history of Der Teufel ist Los. Prineeton, N. J. Alfred E. Eichakds. 3 See Minor, Lousing' s Jugendfreumde (Kurschners Deutsche National-Litteratur, vol. 72, pp. xx-xxii). Also Minor, Christian Felix Weisse und seine Beziehungen zur deutschen Literatur des achtzehnten Jahrhunderis, Innsbruck, 1880, and Scherer's Geschichte der deutschen Literatur, pp. 409 seq. A STUDY IN LITERARY GENEALOGY. To make a statement of plagiarism is a danger- ous thing. Tennyson writing to a friend on the subject said: ' ' Parallelisms must always recur. Why not ? Are there not human eyes all over the world looking at the same objects and must there not consequently be coincidences of thought and impression and expression." And he quotes a Chinese friend who had found ' ' two lines of his, almost word for word, in an old untranslated Chinese poem." Everyone whose book -lore is at all diversified or varied knows the truth of this assertion. Thus in one day's reading the present writer has noticed the suggestive likeness between Longfellow's simile of the snow bridegroom in Evangeline, and his friend Hawthorne's The Snow Image. Or more verbally the k\vBwv 6Wi}s trv/jufiopas of the last lines of the Oedipus Bex recalls Hamlet's "sea of troubles," a quotation that Lowell might have included in his abortive attempt to prove Shakespere's Classical knowledge. Though coincidences of this kind may be merely chance, there are certain similarities that are more than that ; they are frank imitation, or, if you will — plagiarism. Everyone has read Voltaire's famous Zadig and and everyone remembers the amusing tale, Le chien et le eheval. This tale has often been cited as the initial example of that ratiocinative method that Poe first applied to the detective story. But as a matter of fact this story is very old and it has quite a varied history. Briefly Voltaire says : As Zadig is walking near a small wood he meets the king's head hunts- man who asks him whether he has seen the king's horse that has escaped from one of the grooms. "It is," replied Zadig, "the horse that has the best stride ; it is just five feet high, has a very small hoof, a tail three and a half feet long, etc." "Which way did he go?" asks the huntsman. " I have not seen him at all," replies Zadig, " and I never heard of him before. ' ' They immediately conclude that Zadig has stolen the horse and arrest him. Scarcely has his sentence been passed when the horse is recovered. Much surprise is expressed at Zadig' s discernment and be is questioned on it. ' ' While walking in the woods I noticed the prints of a horse at equal distances : there, I said, is a horse that has a perfect pace. The dust on the trees along the trail was brushed off just seven feet 246 MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES. [Vol. xxi, No. 8. in expanse. Therefore, the horse had a tail ex- actly three feet and a half long." The apparent genesis of Voltaire's story occurs in a slightly different form in one Chevalier de Mailly's Voyage et Aventures des trois Princes de Sarendip, which appeared in 1719 — twenty-eight years before Zadig. The three princes starting out on their journey encounter a camel driver who has lost one of his herd. They have noticed the tracks of such an animal, though not seen him, and when asked by the driver if they know of his whereabouts, the eldest replies, was he not blind? the second, did he not have a tooth out? the third, was he not lame? The camel driver assents with delight to the questions and continues on his way rejoicing. Not finding his camel, however, he returns and accuses them of bantering with him. "To prove that what we say is so, ' ' said the eldest, ' ' your camel carried butter on one side and honey on the other." The second, "And a lady rode the camel," etc. In the same manner they are arrested for theft and sentenced. And in the same manner the camel is refound and an expla- nation is given. ' ' I judged that the camel was blind because I noticed that on one side of the road all the grass was gnawed down, while the other side which was far better was untouched. Therefore, I inferred that he had but one eye else he would not have left the good to eat the poor grass." "I found in the road mouthfuls of half chewed herbage the size of a tooth of just such an animal," etc. This book of De Mailly's, which contains still more deductions of the same nature is directly transcribed from an otherwise unknown Italian writer, Christoforo Armeno. His Peregrinaggio di ire giovanni figliovoli del re di Sarendippo, of which but three copies are extant, was printed at Venice in 1557, with the papal permit dated 1555. It was translated into German in 1583, and into French as early as 1610. Strange to say the work through De Mailly's version was Eng- lished twenty-four years before Voltaire's story, while other renderings in Dutch and Danish existed. The title page of De Mailly's work reads Traduit du Penan, and the original, dalla Persiana nell'I- taliana lingua trapportato. But no direct counter- part of Christoforo' s work has been found. All of the stories, however, can be traced to various oriental sources and it is likely that his book was merely a collection of diverse tales. This par- ticular episode of the lost camel is the oldest in the volume. It is found in nearly all the eastern languages — Arabian, Persian, Turkish, Indian, Hebrew, — with slight variations. The earliest apparent source is the tract Synhe- drin of the Babylonian Talmud (c. 200). This is the Hebrew version : Two Jewish prisoners as they are led along say to one another : ' ■ The camel that is ahead of us is blind, besides he carries two leather bottles, one containing wine, the other oil, of his two conduc- tors, one is a Jew, the other a pagan." "How do you know that ? ' ' questions their master. ' ' He is blind because he grazes on one side of the way only. Parallel to his tracks are little bubbles on the surface of the earth — oil, and another liquid that has sunk into the ground — wine. A little later they declare that their lord is son of a dan- seuse, that the meat has the tang of a dog and the wine of death. On investigation, it is discovered that the lamb which they had eaten was nourished by a bitch, that the grapevine had grown on a tomb. This story with unimportant changes, such as salt and honey for wine and oil, that the camel is lame instead of blind is found in no less than eleven Oriental tales. It is thought by some to be of Sanskrit derivation and is given an alle- gorical meaning by Hebrew scholars. Probably from these occidental sources the tale came into Europe. Donatus, in his fictitious life of Vergil (c. 400 ?), relates that Vergil asserted that a horse newly presented to the king was reared by an ass and that his majesty was the son of a baker. Interesting to note a reasoning of much the same kind occurs in the story of Hamlet in the third book of the Historia Daniea of Saxo Grammaticus (d. 1204), where Amleth deduces that the wheat from which the bread is made grew on a battlefield, that the lard is tainted with death, that the queen is a wench. An almost exact coun- terpart of this is found in Christoforo' s book and it has a great similarity to the Talmud quoted above. The story recurs also in an Italian novel of Giovanni Sercambi. It is a curious fact that December, 1906.] MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES. 247 Voltaire's changing of the dromedary to a horse also had a precedent. In the Maase Buch (1600) a collection of Judea- German stories, three broth- ers meet a Jew who has lost his horse. ' ' Was he not white?" asked one. "And blind too?" the other. "Besides he bore two casks, one of oil the other of vinegar ? " Doubtless M. de Voltaire would have been as much surprised to find such an imposing ancestry for his tale as the writer was, but at all events it is quite apparent that he got his idea from De Mailly's translation of Christoforo, or possibly from some of the rarer ones before him. Leon Fbasek. Columbia University. SHAKESPEARE, Oth. 3. 4. 74. On the lines, And it was dyed in mummy, which the skilful Conserved of maidens' hearts, Steevens has (Shakespeare Variorum of 1813) : 'The balsamick liquor running from mummies, was formerly celebrated for its anti-epileptick vir- tues. We are now wise enough to know, that the qualities ascribed to it are all imaginary ; and yet this fanciful medicine still holds a place in the principal shops where drugs are sold. So, in The Bird in a Cage [1. 1 ; Dyce's ed. 2. 382], by Shirley, 1633 : " — Make mummy of my flesh, and sell me to the apothe- caries." Again, in The Honest Lawyer, 1616 : " That I might tear their flesh in mammocks, raise My losses, from their carcases turn'd mummy." 'Mummy, however, is still much coveted by painters, as a transparent brown colour that throws a warmth into their shadows. . . . ' So, in the Microeosmos of John Davies of Here- ford, 4to. 1605 : " — Mummy made of the mere hart of love." ' The ' witches' mummy ' of Macb. 4. 1. 23 has no note in this edition. Subsequent commentators on the Shakespearean passages are rather meagre in quotation, if we may judge by the Furness Variorum. The following collocation of passages may therefore be welcome to students : Hakluyt, Principal Navigations, Glasgow, 1904, 5. 336 (The Pilgrimage to Mecca, ca. 1580) : ' Out of one of these [Pyramids near Cairo] are dayly digged the bodies of auncient men, not rotten but all whole, the cause whereof is the qualitie of the Egyptian soil, which will not consume the flesh of men, but rather dry and harden the same, and so always conserveth it.' lb. 6. 26 (Wm. Barret, in a list of goods for trading, writing from Aleppo, 1584) : ' Momia from the great Cayro.' Du Bartas, Divine Weekes (1579, 1605-6), 2. 1. 1. 254 (Grosart 1. 101), emphasizing the medicinal qualities of the Tree of Life, compares it with nectar, ambrosia, the fruits of the Hes- perides, moly, nepenthe, and elixir, but also with mummy : Or Mummie ? or Elixir (that excels) ? . . . Bacon, Nat. History 980 ( Works, ed. Sped- ding, Ellis, and Heath, 2. 665) : 'Mummy hath great force in stanching blood ; which, as it may be ascribed to the mixture of balms that are glu- tinous, so it may also partake of a secret propriety in that the blood draweth man's flesh.' Webster, White Devil (1612) 1. 1 : Your followers Haue swallowed you like mummia, and, being sick With such unnatural and horrid physic, Vomit you up i' the kennel. . . . Thomas Randolph, The Muses' Looking Glass (written before March, 1634-5) 3. 1 (Randolph, Poems, 1652, p. 39 of Muses' Looking Glass ; Dodsley, Old Plays, ed. of 1780, 9. 214 ; ed. of 1825, 9. 182) : 'But I'll have one [tomb] In which I'll lie embalmed with myrrh and cassia, And richer unguents than the Egyptian kings ; And all that this my precious tomb may furnish The land with mummy [old spelling, Mummie]. . .' Sir Thomas Browne, Hydriotaphia (1658), ed. Evans, London, 1893, p. 81 (= Works, ed. Wilkin, 3. 494) : ' The -Egyptian Mummies, which Cambyces or time hath spared, avarice now consumeth. Mummie is become Merchandise, Mizraim cures wounds, and Pharaoh is sold for balsoms. '